EEC 2020


The Green Deal

Economic growth ‘at all costs’ is no longer an applicable paradigm. Is climate change the most important challenge of our time? The sustainable approach is rapidly entering all areas of human activity, but at different speeds, on different scales, and in different symptoms.

There is no alternative to the sustainable development formula that is centred on stopping climate change. Under the influence of market and customer pressure, businesses include sustainable development trends in their strategies and, most importantly:

  • climate action – including reduction in emissions to the atmosphere
  • transformation of the power generation sector – including the development of renewable energy sources; reconstruction of the energy mix
  • the circular economy
  • rational and efficient use of natural resources – water, fuels and raw materials
  • scientific research and development of clean technologies for sustainable transformation of the economy.

The Green New Deal for Europe – its key objectives and tools. Europe as the first climate-neutral continent and a leader in the transition to the circular economy. European ambitions versus economic development and competitiveness. Supporting regions and sectors in the fair transformation processes.

Europe of the future

The European Union has lost its global economic and technological primacy. However, the European values – tolerance, solidarity, dialogue and respect for the individual – create Europe’s specific soft power. Freedom (including economic freedom), security, culture, and the environment is a unique European synthesis and still a point of reference – an ‘object of desire’ for the world.

That global influence is sometimes poorly understood, and remains unused. What is Europe’s biggest weakness today? And where does its underutilised potential lie? How to protect values – in a world of expansive technologies, consumerism and populism?

The Brexit lesson: What has it taught us? What about cohesion? Is Europe still united? The future of the euro area. The new EU budget: Will there be a new balance of power? Giving up on the prospect of EU enlargement: Is it temporary or final? What do we want to achieve and what can we still achieve together worldwide?

Europe and the US – the future of the Western block in terms of the economy and security.

Energy transition

The energy sector and its transformations are key to achieving a sustainable economy. The global power industry continues to exploit limited resources, the use of which affects the environment and climate change and, indirectly, rapid natural phenomena occurring all around the world.

At what pace and in what directions is our approach to energy – its generation and use – changing? How do knowledge, creativity and innovation help transform the power industry towards a ‘greener’ one? What technologies can give direction and pace to the energy transition in the nearest future? The latest and promising trends in the field of renewable energy sources as well as storage and efficient use of energy. The digital revolution versus changes in the energy sector and in the power systems.


Main trends determining the direction and pace of the 4th industrial revolution. The current and potential role of artificial intelligence, blockchain, the Internet of Things, Big Data, and cloud computing. New possibilities and opportunities; new risks and threats.

What mechanisms introduce new technologies to the economy? What are the most important challenges related to the digital transformation? Shaping the competences of the future; training; creating infrastructure for the widespread use of data; greater integration of digital technologies implemented by enterprises, especially those operating in traditional sectors; state responsibility.

The digital economy – freedom, supervision and control. How to protect values, privacy, individual rights and other civil liberties? The EU regulatory power versus market power of large corporations.

Are we ready for a rainy day?

One of the longest, relatively good phases of the economic cycle is currently in progress. Experts have been announcing economic slowdown for several years now. Its expected effects on the European economy. Do we need to take anticipatory action too? If so, what actions should we take? The economy of Poland and other countries of the region in the face of the cooling of the European economy and a drop in demand. What can effectively prepare the Polish economy for a slowdown? What financial instruments ‘for a rainy day’ should we use?

Business from scratch

Socio-economic changes in the services sector (utilising mobile technologies and ICT tools). E-commerce and e-business – expansion, new strategies, and new tools. New consumers – their values, preferences and decisions. Competitiveness of state-of-the-art business scenarios in relation to traditional models. Sharing, distribution, openness of systems, civic activity in the economy, and individual entrepreneurship are all extremely attractive to customers and contractors.

Is the ‘uberisation’ of the economy a stimulus for development, or rather a trap / stumbling block / risk? Concerns about quality, security, conflicts and monopolisation. Business of the digital era versus the idea of social economy. Trends in the new economy – in dialogue with new customers: #openbusiness/ #userdesign/ #customerdevelopment/ #freemium. Should we prohibit, stimulate or regulate? What legal environment is conducive to new economic models? 



The World Wide Web

The Internet has changed the world. In what way? For better? Or for worse? An attempt to assess the phenomenon, along with an emphasis on risks. The potential of information and disinformation in public space and in business. Is it time for the world to change the Internet? Network management and its operation. Legal, economic and social aspects. The digital economy based on data, artificial intelligence, innovative online technologies, digital competences, and security. The global Internet Governance Forum (IGF) 2020 in Poland – key areas of debate. The most infamous case studies (Brexit, Cambridge Analytica, trolling, and mass hacker attacks) and their impact on political and economic life.

E-commerce and technologies

Trading in the phase of deep digitalisation. Will there be online services only? The effects of those phenomena on traditional business. The latest trends in e-commerce – new models for actions, and technological tools – logistics and infrastructure. Tools for optimising e-commerce in practice.

A brave new network

5G – the next generation network as the future of communication and the condition for the success of the digital transformation in the economy. What is at stake? Benefits resulting from the construction of 5G networks. Technologies and business models using new opportunities. Who is already ‘5G Ready’? Security of infrastructure. Tenders and the financing of construction. The most advanced implementation cases. First experiences: How to adapt them to the Polish reality?

Cloud in business and business in the cloud

Cloud computing – the key element of the 4th industrial revolution. Cloud technologies. Business on demand – the potential of cloud-based and online businesses. The inclination of the economy/businesses towards using cloud solutions. The level of cloud absorption among enterprises in Poland and Europe. The Polish National Cloud.

Artificial intelligence

The potential and importance of AI in the economy and in the process of civilisation development. AI Vibes – areas of influence of data science. Directions of application – current and prospective. Risks – apparent and actual.

Big Data

Data in the economy – a revolution in progress. Big Data Talks – open data: Where? When? On what scale? Competitive advantage thanks to access and data processing. Profit and freedom versus administration and business: How to reconcile contradictions? American, Asian and European perspectives on the use of data in business. In search of a universal formula.

The Internet of Things

IoT versus the digital transformation of the economy. IoT Flow, or communication between machines and systems: What do we get out of it? The Industrial Internet of Things and the idea of an intelligent factory being implemented. IoT in the city, trade and services, as well as in agriculture and healthcare.

The quantum revolution

Quantum computers, or a different world… The history of research, recent achievements, and new opportunities. The most important scientific and commercial applications for quantum supercomputers. Leaders in the quantum race: What is at stake there? Polish ways to join the quantum computerisation.

Small but digital

Small and medium-sized enterprises in the digital transformation process. Are they (excessively?) cautious? How can they find their place in the trend of change, which is led by corporations with unlimited budgets? What can/should they invest in? The role of co-operation platforms. Support tools; specialised programmes and incentives.

Lesson learned from innovation

Innovation begins with education. How to change the education system so that it corresponds with contemporary challenges? Do we know how to teach thinking? Will young people from Polish schools find their place in a rapidly changing world? How to educate innovators (who are creative, flexible and versatile)? How to teach entrepreneurship - from nursery schools to universities; the Finnish model.

Business in orbit

Access to information obtained from satellites used to be the domain of superpowers and the military. Today, data from space is becoming an accessible resource, which is valuable for businesses. Start-ups with ideas for business utilisation of those data are multiplying. Satellite images are used in meteorology, climate change research, construction, and agriculture. Can Polish experience in the development of nanosatellite technology be promising?

The space sector in Poland and in Europe

The European Space Agency versus private businesses. Co-operation on key projects. Principles, effects, benefits and prospects. Mechatronics, mechanics, robotics and other specialities active in space projects. Space technologies in other industries. The role of Polish technical universities. The ‘Internet from space’ project: Will it be launched this year?


Fintech start-ups as partners of the banking sector. The concept of a digital bank: How? What for? For whom? Do we know the preferences of new clients? What and how do young people want to do with money using technologies? What digital tools will help the banking sector face new challenges – including those related to public services? AI in the financial sector. Pressure from big technological players (GAFA).

Industry 4.0 in Poland

The state and businesses versus technological development in key Polish industries. Steady progress or… going right down to the wire? The state of preparations for and implementation of the elements of the 4th industrial revolution in Poland. Reasons for differences of opinion. The state, corporations, smaller businesses, and universities – the necessary division of roles. The awareness of the need to set a course for Industry 4.0 solutions among Polish enterprises and managers. The cry for staff. How to prepare them well and on a larger scale? Conditions (educational, legal and financial) necessary for Industry 4.0 to exist on the scale of a single business.

The digital twin

The virtual world under real-life management. ‘Smooth’ manufacturing, testing, failure prediction, and training: What else should there be? The digital twin in action.


Challenges, risks and countermeasures. The flow of a mass of information and the co-operation of a multitude of professionals multiply the risk. The Act on the National Cybersecurity System. Pranks, theft or blackmail for profit; industrial espionage; and political objectives – different faces of cyberaggression. Political and business risks. Wars without fire, or potential paralysis of critical infrastructure. ‘Do you want to defeat a hacker? Think like one.’ Critical moments – on how to fight cybercriminals today and tomorrow. Humans – the weakest link? New, effective tools and methods for protecting privacy and company secrets in the digital world. Expenses incurred by businesses on risk mitigation and security systems: Will we have a cybersecurity market?

The automotive industry on a data motorway

How will the requirements of cars in terms of data collection and processing increase? Will traditional automotive corporations give way to IT giants in the era of digitalisation, autonomous driving and connected cars? New standards for the exchange of data between automotive companies – in the supply chain.

The gaming industry

The development to date and the further market potential. The role of e-sport events. Their bearing on other industries. How does e-gaming change under the influence of a more mature client?

Brands in the digital era

The new face of a brand in the digital era. What about brand identity in the transformation process? How to create brand content that will not be lost in a multitude of information?

YouTubers, vloggers, influencers…

On shaping opinions online. How to create one’s own business out of passion, knowledge and talent? The mystery of originality: How to stand out? How do online communication channels and forms of expression serve young businesses? My face and… what will come next? Possibilities of scaling original projects. Image and relations as capital.


Climate, politics and energy

What will happen to the climate policy in the context of the US withdrawal from the Paris Agreement and the new EU commitments (climate neutrality by 2050)? What kind of partner could China be for Europe in those actions? The following issues – in the context of the role of coal in the global power industry and investment in RES, as well as the energy mixes of the world’s largest economies: CO2 reduction targets versus national climate and energy plans. Fair transformation – interpretations, expectations and controversies. Sources of funds and fund-raising for the energy transition versus actual needs.

Energy of the future

Energy transition worldwide, as well as in Europe and in Poland – the most important phenomena and groundbreaking technologies. The safe and efficient moving away from conventional energy sources. Will nuclear energy, RES or hydrogen become development impulses for the Polish economy? Corporate responsibility versus environmentalism. Where is electromobility heading? Technologies of the future; regulations of and barriers to the energy transition. Flexible services in the power industry.

The Polish energy policy

The national energy and climate plan. Prospects of RES development – achieving the 2020 target; the 2030 target. The future of the power market in Poland. Electromobility in Poland – the current state of play and prospects of development. Offshore wind power generation. Challenges for the electricity distribution sector. The costs of energy transition. The CO2 emission allowances market after changes that were introduced to the EU ETS. Modernisation of the heating industry. Directions of changes in the sector. The financing of modernisation of the power industry – funds from the EU ETS. The prospect of release of energy prices. RES development outside the government support systems. The policy pursued by the European financial sector versus investment projects in the power industry and in the fuel sector.

Renewable energy in Poland, Europe and worldwide

Renewable, efficient and cheap? RES in the current business and technological reality. An overview of activities, phenomena and trends concerning an increase in accessibility and a decrease in costs of renewable technologies development. The role of IT, data management and smart grid. In order to mark their presence in the new power industry, digital giants invest in various solutions, including specialised cloud solutions intended for RES. The mix of renewable sources in Poland – the current state of play and prospects. Support for RES at the regional and local government levels. Regulations and legal conditions for the development of renewable energy sources: How it is done in other countries.


Development of electromobility worldwide, in Europe, and in Poland. Assessment and experiences. Support programmes – necessary corrections. Infrastructure development as a key factor – the role of technologies, operators and regulations. Effects of the development of electromobility on the power system. Ways in which we are preparing for a boom. Where is Polish e-mobility heading?

The European gas market

The European gas market in facts and figures. Gas infrastructure in Europe versus the security of individual countries and the entire EU. Unresolved contradictions and conflicts of interest. How to break that stalemate? What can we do together? Where to look for a compromise? Nord Stream 2 as a lesson. Poland as an example of emancipation – from dependence towards autonomy. Gas in the EU ETS: When? Under what terms? With what effects?

Should we go for nuclear energy after all?

What are the actual prospects of nuclear generation development in the ‘post-Fukushima’ reality? Is it possible to continue such a dynamic RES development without nuclear energy included in the basis of the system? New technologies related to safety and storage/disposal/use of spent nuclear fuel. Polish plans in this respect versus the future of the national power industry; the structure of the energy mix.

Fuels and drives of the future

What will propel the world? Since the simple combustion of hydrocarbons will soon be a thing of the past… Efficient systems. Hydrogen. Solar panels. Fuels from waste. Efficient energy storage. Other alternatives.

The age of hydrogen

Hydrogen as an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels. The potential of hydrogen for storage, stabilisation of RES, and balancing of power systems. Hydrogen programmes in European countries. World leaders in hydrogen technologies and legislation supporting the development of that sector. Hydrogen in the process of direct generation of emission-free electricity. The decarbonisation potential of hydrogen in the face of the climate crisis. Can the introduction of hydrogen technologies to the energy mix or domestic industry be an opportunity to accelerate the energy transition in the Polish power industry?

Energy storage

Traditional and new methods of energy storage. Their efficiency, dissemination and prospects. The points of view of scientists, power engineers, and energy consumers/users. When will a breakthrough come? In 10, 20 or 30 years’ time? Energy storage versus RES development. E-mobility and generated energy management capabilities.

Photovoltaics: There is a boom, but what will come next?

Poland in the lead of statistics on the increase in power from generated from photovoltaics in Europe. What effects does/will it have – on the system, on the position of the Polish power industry, and on the awareness of both prosumers and politicians? Economic, social and environmental benefits. Other aspects (technologies, implementation powers, support programmes, and fragmented PVs in the power system). Support instruments for photovoltaic projects. Photovoltaics in RES auctioning. Benefits and risks for entities entering into PPAs.

Energy of the Earth

Prospects for geothermal energy in Poland. Implemented and planned geothermal projects. Exploration in search of new deposits. Profitability and financing of as well as development barriers to geothermal investment projects. Summary of the first edition of the National Geothermal Development Programme. Environmental effects of geothermal investment projects. Their importance in the context of the fight against smog.


The circular economy

The circular economy – an overview of challenges, barriers and opportunities. Less waste? Economic growth and reduction in consumption: How to reconcile the two? Designing things so that there is no waste. The city and waste segregation. Recycling in the construction industry. Zero waste manufacturing. Regulations, costs and reality. In the EU, 42 per cent of waste is recycled. But it generates costs… Who wins – those who do it effectively or those who keep manufacturing products the old way (i.e. cheaper)? Raw materials from waste – examples and good practice. Pro-environmental technological solutions. The problem of packaging waste.

Waste – management and new trends

Good practice of local governments – collection, segregation and treatment. Mandatory biogas plants. The new deposit system. Development of recycling. Waste treatment – technologies.

Plastic isn’t fantastic

Plastics at a crossroads. The social pressure is enormous, but not the same – it differs in different parts of the world. What does the chemical industry have to say about it? What about the R&D sector? What is the alternative to plastics? The circular economy in chemistry – new technologies enabling full, efficient and cost-effective recycling of plastics.

Stop smog

Legal tools; their effects and effectiveness. The ‘Clean Air’ Programme: Will it be reactivated? The ban on burning coal in domestic furnaces – sources of financing for the replacement of furnaces. Smog and district heating – mandatory solutions versus connection costs. Air quality in urban policies; experiences of leaders. How to convince residents to stop burning waste? Smog in less urbanised areas. The problem of energy poverty, and countermeasures. The role of social awareness and education.

Technology for the air

Ways in which new technologies (in the power industry, transport, and the construction industry) support the fight to improve air quality. Renewable energy sources; energy efficiency and thermal efficiency improvement; e-mobility; filtering and purification technologies; and innovation. Costs and applicability versus needs and effects. The idea of green cities – emission-free zones, smog absorbers and other solutions.

Technologies for climate

Areas of technological research in response to the climate crisis: What is the direction of science and imagination? Examples of technologies with high potential. Innovative companies – their activity in the ‘green business’, the lower barrier to market entry, and specialised support tools. Sustainable development in the strategies pursued by large companies and investors – an opportunity to implement revolutionary ideas. Higher risk tolerance in green innovations. The role of ethics in project selection.

Water resources. In the face of a crisis

The hydrological situation in Poland, Europe and around the world. Is a huge drought coming? Climate change, human activity and other factors shaping water resources. Artificial and natural retention. The role of regulations in the eco-friendly management of water resources. Eco-hydrology: How to harness the potential of natural processes for the purposes of sustainable development? Savings and education.

Consumption versus consumerism

What does ‘excessive’ mean? Consumption is the driving force behind economic development, but also a factor in dependence. Creating demand; waste of resources faces harsh criticism. Prestige and excess: Can we live differently? Regulations enforcing a new approach to the manufacturing and utilisation of goods. Less is more – self-restraint in practice. Contemporary trends: no waste, plastic-free, the circular economy, and consciousism.


The turbulent world

International trade versus geopolitics and rivalry between powers. The economy and politics – feedback. How do these spheres affect each other? Opposite trends: global trade liberalisation and protectionism. How do instability, unpredictability and internal conflict in the world affect the economy? Trade wars: Where do they lead us? What are/will be their effects?

The global economy – war or peace?

The importance of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in the global economy. Advantages and defects. An overview of negotiated and signed free trade agreements. Is liberalisation a win-win situation? On a catalogue of profits and possible losses. Liberalisation of trade and services in the European Union – its significance for Poland.

EU trade agreements

The role of foreign trade in EU GDP. Bilateral agreements removing barriers to international trade. The effects and benefits of existing alliances. Types of agreements; industries and groups of goods; and types of preferences. Enterprises from EU countries in global markets. Trade agreements as the European ‘gateway to the world’.

Poland – USA. A vision without visas

Visa-free travel – first experiences and observations. Is it an image effect? The new rules versus economic co-operation between the two countries. Is it an opportunity for Polish businesses? Will there be new American investment projects in Poland? Effects of facilitation for tourism, air transport, and personal relations in business. Visa-free travel versus security.

The Poland – China Economic Co-operation Forum

The Africa – Europe Forum

The Europe – ASEAN Forum

The Poland – Latin America Forum

Polish-German and Polish-Czech cross-border economic co-operation

The Germany – Poland Forum

Germany is the largest economic partner of Poland, with 26–28 per cent share of total foreign trade turnover. What is good in that model, and what can be improved? What are the experiences of Polish businesses in Germany – ‘only’ exporters as well as investors? What do Polish businesses praise the German economic system for? Can it be adapted to the Polish system?

Relations between the EU and the UK after Brexit


The Solidarity Transport Hub Poland (CPK)

CPK Solidarność: Ready, set, go? A schedule for 10 years – milestones. The process of strategic agreements determining the parameters of the new airport and its access infrastructure. The opinions of carriers. An air hub or a transport hub? Selecting a strategic and technical adviser and master plan contractor. The CPK and competition: Who will gain and who will lose? Construction of the CPK versus the Polish construction sector. Financing. Will there be foreign capital? The specific nature of a large-scale investment: Do we need special regulations? The CPK in the European transport system.

The CPK. Next station: the hub

How can the Solidarity Transport Hub Poland (CPK) change the Polish rail transport system? The construction plans of the CPK are accompanied by the intentions to expand and improve the railway network in Poland. Will there be a completely new rolling stock? The potential of Polish industry versus the needs to be met. Regions of Poland that will gain the most in terms of railway infrastructure thanks to the construction of the Solidarity Transport Hub Poland (CPK). Railway projects that will improve connections with Poland’s neighbours.

A strategy for the aviation industry

In Poland, the number of air operations is expected to double by 2030. Will we be able to meet that challenge (and opportunity at the same time)? The aviation community demands that the Ministry of Infrastructure develop the so-called ‘Aviation Package’ – a strategy to set goals and define tools for their implementation. This is a condition for development and investment in regional airports, as well as a signpost for universities and other institutions. The development of air traffic versus the problem of its impact on the environment (including noise).

Drones for rent

Commercial use of drone technologies. Newer and newer applications for drones. Short-distance drone flying – the so-called drone taxi. Necessary regulations; advancement in legislation. Registration of drones.

The transport strategy for Poland

The issues of sustainable transport versus the Polish reality. The lack of competitiveness of the railway. The emissions level of road transport and its high so-called external costs. The current state of play is not in line with EU objectives. What ideas are there? What solutions? Regulatory ones? Electromobility?

Polish logistics today and tomorrow

Development of transport infrastructure versus investment in warehouse logistics. Conditions for achieving sustainable growth in rail freight transport in view of the changing structure of the Polish economy. Will Poland remain a transit country on the New Silk Road? The European courier logistics market: How to become an active, important player? Intermodal transport – prospects of growth, and infrastructural needs. What are the conditions for further development of intermodal transport? New technologies in the supply chain. On how e-commerce and digitalisation are changing the Polish warehouse market.

New prospects for Polish seaports

All four major seaports implement large-scale investment projects that will expand their service capacity and, by modernising or expanding their ‘shore-side’ rail and road infrastructure, will improve their competitiveness. The future depends on three major investment projects, i.e. the construction of the Central Port in Gdańsk, the Outer Port in Gdynia and the expansion of the ro-ro terminal in Świnoujście. Consultation and analytical work is under way, and at the same time investors are being attracted. Investment projects will be implemented if funds are raised. Will the currently modernised and constructed road and rail infrastructure be sufficient to double the handling in seaports around 2030? What will need to be added? Will inland waterways ease the burden on land transport?


The chemical industry in search of an alternative

The chemical industry’s ways to face up to new pressure – to reduce the use (and recycling) of plastics as well as new agricultural trends affecting the fertilisers and plant protection products sector. Will technology help? What is the direction of the research?

Wonderful materials (presentations, demonstrations and workshops)

New materials in various industries – the steel industry, the construction industry, the chemical industry, and the power industry. Lighter, stronger, with special properties, degradable, and recyclable. Including nanotechnologies, Perovskites, composites, etc. What do they provide? How does it change manufacturing? What will the world of the future be made of?

Fuels, refineries and extraction

Main problems of the fuel industry in Poland. The merger of Orlen and Lotos is going into the home straight. Dynamics of the process and its projected effects on global competitiveness, the internal market, and development of the sector. Directions of changes and the potential of the Polish petrochemistry. The petrochemical industry versus energy use and the circular economy. New technologies and products in response to the challenges of sustainable development. Electromobility versus demand for fuels – now and in the future. Increasing the efficiency of oil extraction and processing. Energy security of the country versus the expansion of the storage base.

The automotive industry

Rapid development of electromobility versus car manufacturing – in Europe and worldwide. Changing the propulsion system is not enough. What other technological changes does the development of electromobility force? The carbon footprint of e-vehicles: Are electric cars less harmful to the environment, if we also consider the process of manufacturing them? Specialised or flexible platforms – which solution prevails in the market? New materials and new technologies in automotive manufacturing.

The defence industry

Poland’s defence potential: What has been done in recent years to strengthen the Polish Armed Forces? Global technologies in the Polish Army. What is the share of the Polish arms industry in the modernisation? Success cases, opportunities and problems. Innovation and new technologies in the Polish defence industry. What share can Polish enterprises have in modernisation and investment programmes? Development of space technologies – one of the fastest growing fields of defence. Exports of Polish weapons – ambitions, opportunities, and competitive products.

Energy-independent industry

Nuclear energy, photovoltaics, windmills, RDF-fuelled combined heat and power plants, and gas units - the scale of industrial companies’ investment in their own energy sources is increasing. The rising prices of electricity make industry want to become independent of its external supplies. How much truth is in the announcements? How big is the market for contractors? A problem for the state power industry: Will it lose customers?

The steel industry in Poland and in Europe

Pressure of the climate policy and tightening of the environmental standards versus decisions made by key manufacturers. The steel industry in the face of barriers to international trade. New technologies as an adequate response to the challenges? Niches; technologically advanced products and materials; and specialised steel processing. Steel production within a network of co-operative relations. Key suppliers and the most important customers (the construction industry, infrastructure, the automotive industry, the machinery industry, and household appliances). The importance of having a domestic steel sector from the point of view of the interests of the economy, and security.

Mining – transformation, prospects and environment

Causes and directions of transformations in the mining industry. The future of coal in Europe – demand, costs and regulations. Fair transformation of the sector – its pace, mechanisms and effects. More than just coal? The industry in the diversification trend. Clean coal technologies – declarations and reality. Computerisation and automation in the mining industry – their influence on work efficiency and work safety. Possibilities of applying the latest solutions in the Polish mining and geological reality. Polish manufacturers of machinery and equipment in search of alternatives.


The city and the world

Towards the 11th UN World Urban Forum – Katowice 2022. UN-HABITAT, the UN agency for urban settlements, dealing with urban policy and urban development – an overview of problems and challenges. The city, climate, and resources. Experiences and good practice related to sustainable urban development. The role of a host: How to prepare for the summit? The importance of the event for Poland as well as Polish cities and metropolises.

PPP – a new opening

Local governments as partners for business. A city attractive to investors. What do they expect, and what can they get? Prospects for the development of PPP as an antidote to the lack of investment resources. Regulations and political support. Needs and opportunities. New PPP projects – examples. Good practice of local governments. Partnership as a remedy to the financial collapse of local governments. Combining PPP with EU funding. Private partners: How to look for them?

Public transport – a time of revolution

Communication at a level satisfactory to residents. Financial and legal conditions for the activity of public transport organisers in cities. The bus transport development fund: What is the reason for such low interest in it? Contracts for the provision of transport services versus the creation of own transport. Conurbation railways as an opportunity for public transport. Necessary investment in infrastructure, and synchronisation with bus and tram transport. If not the railway, then what? Monorail and underground – new ideas for public transport in cities.

A different approach to mobility

Mobility phenomena and technologies changing cities, business, habits, and mentality. Mobility means business, but also a dimension of freedom, quality of life, and condition for professional activity. The trend of individual, shared e-mobility and related problems (scooters, city bikes and car sharing – safety, responsibility and infrastructure). Eviction of cars from cities in favour of public transport. If someone is to drive a car at all, it should not be their own: car sharing and long-term rental. Other alternatives to individual mobility.

A war for the city

How to control the increasing urban chaos (cars, entry bans, lack of parking spaces, and developers)? Will zero zones or 10 zones in cities solve the insecurity problems? Has free public transport proved its worth? Diesel cars will not get in – new restrictions (and planned restrictions). Traffic jams are the nightmare of cities – examples of European cities dealing with the problem. Parking fees, bans, and car-free zones in city centres – ways to limit car traffic in our cities.

Fair transformation

Transformations in the global power industry, and prospects for the hard coal sector. Fair transformation of mining regions: What does it mean? Economic and social consequences and costs of the process. EU funds: How much? For whom? For what? Revitalisation in practice. First projects – pilot programmes, presentations and experiences. The role of the social side – participation of local authorities in programming. Experiences of European countries and mining regions.

Climate change – a challenge for cities

Urban plans for adapting to climate change: diagnosed risks and proposed methods of counteracting their effects. How to plan urban infrastructure investment projects (water supply, power systems) in the context of climate change? A little bit of shade… Legal conditions for combating ‘concretosis’ in Polish cities. The importance of spatial development regulations. Examples of good practice in cities.

Local government budgets

The most difficult local government budget in recent years – no financial surplus, limited income (lower PIT), and increase in expenditure (higher minimum salary and pay rises for teachers). Are local government investment projects at risk? Necessary changes in the grants/subsidies system. It is time for a tax revolution – the share of local governments in VAT, and their higher share in PIT. Is it time for cadastral tax?

Poland in disorder

When will local authorities get to grips with local land use plans? Are there any obstacles? Proposed changes in law, aimed at facilitating the procedure of adopting the plans. The importance of local plans for the development conditions of urban centres, strategic planning and the condition of the property market.

Tourism and the hotel industry

The growing importance of tourism in the Polish economy. The current state of play and development of accommodation and hotel facilities. The importance of new hotel and infrastructure investment projects in metropolises, as well as in locations attractive to tourists and in poorly urbanised areas. An overview of examples and pro-development mechanisms.

Business tourism

High dynamics of business tourism development in Poland – its sources and importance to the economy and development of the country. Internationalisation of the Polish economy as a ‘generator’ of tourism related to business. The influence of business tourism on the condition of infrastructure in cities. Modern facilities and complexes as a base for the meetings industry. Professionalisation of the Polish tourism and event industry – quality, diversity and availability.


Commercial property in Poland

#10yearschallenge. A decade in the commercial property market in Poland. Where are we going to be in the next ten years? How will the property market in Poland change? Warehouses are not yet preparing for a trade war, but they keep a watchful eye on the situation. The retail sector in the period of transformation has to cope with the generational change among its customers. Office buildings: Is the dynamics of development adequate to the scale of tenants’ interest? Hotels are resistant to the economic situation and will cope even with oversupply. In play are also new asset classes – halls of residence and senior homes.

Law and property

Stability and predictability of legal regulations. How big a challenge for the property sector are fast (and not consulted) legal changes? In Poland in 2019, about 200 fundamental regulations affecting the property sector have been amended. Inflation of regulations, limited communication between the legislator and the environment, and too fast pace of changes being introduced. What hinders investors in Poland?

Financing of investment projects in the property market

Foreign investors are still strongly interested in the Polish property market. What attracts capital from America, Asia and Africa to Europe? What products are sought after by investors? Entities, sources and models of financing of property investment projects in the Polish market. Poland’s specific situation – lack of domestic capital. Domestic investors are responsible for 60 per cent of the market in the Czech Republic and Hungary; in Poland – for 2 per cent. How to mobilise Polish capital? REITs and other forms of collective investment in property.

Office 4.0

New standards for office space in response to new requirements of employees. The Millennials, representatives of Gen Z and the ‘silver’ staff… all in the same office? Trends in equipment; technologies, innovations and gadgets. Good and ‘wise’ design – sustainable and innovative solutions in office interiors. New office functions – buildings and interiors conducive to creativity, collective work, health, and balance. Light, greenery, water, and climate – biophilic office design. No emissions, own energy, and no waste – environmentally neutral offices. The work environment of the future. Interesting and innovative office solutions in Poland.

Why coworking?

  • The coworking market in Poland against the backdrop of Europe: Where are we? What is the potential? What are the prospects? The coworking sector has been growing strong and is all the rage in the labour market now. It is changing the style and working conditions in offices. Will coworking dominate the office sector in the future? Lower prices, attractive locations, flexibility, or maybe an antidote to loneliness: What makes people use coworking?
  • Work-it-up – we pick the best coworking facility in Poland. Chain-based, local, and corporate – on how coworking concepts were created. History, plans and creators.


Labour market challenges

Situation in the Polish and European labour market. Lack of employees: Is it a permanent or temporary trend? Factors that may reverse that trend – slowdown, increase in labour costs, automation, productivity growth… How can automation change the labour market? Declining occupations: What in return? Competence mismatch – a source of worry to employers. Employer branding is a necessity today.

The European labour market

Transformations on the map of labour migration in Europe. Are they the effects of Brexit? Will emigrants return to the Polish labour market? Are the Ukrainian resources running out? Difficulties with recruiting new employees from the East. Staff from Asia – previous experiences. How are employers doing – also in other countries of the region?

Young people stuck in limbo

In 2018, 16.5 per cent of people aged 20–34 in the EU were neither working nor receiving education. The number of NEETs in Poland exceeded the barrier of one million. It is no longer precarisation or poor preparation of graduates for their first job (the employer’s requirements) that are the key problems – today the key problem is unproductivity. What are the reasons of that? Effects on the economy. Social impact. Long-term countermeasures.

Education for industry

Industry-specific schools in Poland: Will they provide the right competences for business? Affiliated classes are becoming an increasingly common practice. The educational role of employment agencies. Problems experienced by the technical education sector. Dual education in post-secondary schools and technical universities.

The education system – trends and challenges

The implementation of educational tasks ruins the financial soundness of local governments. Expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP. Will there be a new division of educational tasks into government and local government tasks? Educational standards as a clear indication of the level of educational services guaranteed by public education. What trends determine the evolution of education systems – so that they educate people in accordance with the requirements of the changing world?

Shorter but better

We work long hours, but is our work efficient? What is the decisive factor there? Should there be a shorter working week or a shorter working day? Automation is changing our work. Will it shorten it? Industries where working time can be regulated differently. Remote working, flexible working schedules and other solutions attractive to young employees.

Global edtech

The turbulent development of educational technology. The value of that market. Reasons for the boom. Main trends. Changes in customer expectations. Polish achievements and opportunities for young businesses. Should one make their debut in the global market, or should they first start operating in the national ‘testing ground’?


Business and values

The crisis of confidence in business and the liberal doctrine. Sustainable development, social responsibility, building intellectual capital, and fair competition. The economics of values in the face of the prospect of a slowdown. Generation Z as employees and consumers. Generational authority figures and common views. Values in business: Noble idealism or rational necessity?

The construction market in a new reality

The new Public Procurement Law 2021: Are we ready for a big change? A new system for indexation of contracts. Infrastructure investment projects in the new EU Multiannual Financial Framework for the years 2021–2027. Summary of the EU Multiannual Financial Framework for the years 2014–2020. The commercial and residential investment market. Is there still potential for growth? The ‘Housing Plus’ (‘Mieszkanie Plus’) Programme in a new version. Technological progress in the construction industry. Robotisation, digitalisation and prefabrication. The construction industry on the front line of the fight against climate change. The circular economy enters the construction site. The construction industry versus the labour market – shortages, strategies pursued by companies, education, and immigration.

The new Public Procurement Law

Reasons for introducing the new Public Procurement Law. The most important changes introduced in the new act. Barriers to the development of the public procurement market. The state of preparations for the implementation of the new law.

The construction industry: Prefabrication now!

After many years, prefabrication is beginning to play an increasingly important role – both in residential construction and in other sectors of the market. Is this the future of the Polish construction industry? Rising costs and labour shortages as the catalyst for changes in the construction industry. After years of manufacturing for export, Polish companies dealing with concrete and wooden prefabrication now receive an increasing number of domestic orders. Prefabrication as the hope of the ‘Housing Plus’ (‘Mieszkanie Plus’) Programme.

The truth about private investment

Financial reserves of companies and their willingness to invest. The scale of investment. Main areas of activity of large investors and SMEs. The influence of private investment on the economy and its growth. What kinds of investment do we need? Barriers, stimulating factors, regulations and incentives. Forecast.

The Polish Investment Zone

Assessment of the last two years. Expectations versus reality. How to effectively convince entrepreneurs? Factors facilitating investment. Investment projects outside conurbations – access to human resources and infrastructure. Planned amendments to the act.

Poland as part of global production chains

Foreign investment in Poland over the last 30 years. Investment projects carried out by domestic entities and their relation to the global production chain. Will we always be a supplier of components developed by foreign designers? Conditions required to join the economic Champions League.

Responsibility yesterday and today

Corporate social responsibility: Is it just ‘eco-fashion’ or real action? Evolution of the concept and practice. Who can afford CSR in Europe and Poland? Large companies? SMEs? Customer expectations. Ethical investment, fair trade and other phenomena stimulating corporate responsibility. Sustainable development in a business – strategies pursued by bigger and smaller entities. Waste segregation in enterprises. CSR versus health and work-life balance. Relations with stakeholders.

Building a multi-generational business

The crisis of succession – it is time to slow down and hand over the helm. The Millennials and Generation Z as potential continuators. Cultural differences; views and values; and management models. How to prepare such a ‘seizure of power’? Foundations of a family business in an unstable environment. How to build a business for generations?


Legal risks as an element of operational risk in business. The growing importance of compliance in an uncertain business environment and in the face of the binding standards of responsibility of collective entities. Compliance department (compliance officer) in a business – their scope of duties and role in practice. Specialisation – experts in financial analysis, unfair market practices or consumer protection are desired by employers.

A corporation like a start-up?

Start-up ideas and practices in management, organisational culture and work organisation. How to manage a large structure using the advantages of start-ups? Deconsolidation of the structure? We break with routine – the role of ‘disruption’ in the rapidly changing reality. Risk without foolhardiness? Acceptance for experimentation and flouting of conventions. New needs in employment, education, knowledge management and communication. Leaders, managers and employees – the role of EI (emotional intelligence) in internal relations.

Start-ups and investors

From delight to excess. Easy money, mirages and overvaluation: Is it over now? Is the interest in start-ups in their initial phase decreasing? Young businesses versus investors and big business – between enthusiasm and cool-headed calculation. A chance of a new opening – maturity and experience in relations between technology companies (that evolved from start-ups) and investors.


The food industry – the future of the sector

Thirty years of building the position of the Polish food industry are now behind us. What is ahead of us? Strategies for the third decade of the 21st century: How to sustain growth? Trends determining the future of the Polish food industry:

  • Structural changes. Succession, alliances, and consolidation
  • The labour market is a challenge for the food industry
  • The Polish food brand worldwide: Is it our own or taken over?
  • New consumers – communication, expectations, and product novelties
  • Technologies in the service of healthy food

Polish food on the global market

Is this the time? The perfect time to export Polish food. What determines the strength of Polish food? Niches and trends in European markets. Effective building of our position in distant markets – secrets of the Polish strategy. What is conducive to foreign expansion, and what limits it?

Attention! A restaurant and catering revolution is under way.

Factors affecting the situation and prospects for the catering industry. The restaurant and catering industry in the times of pop culture. A food dictionary, or mega-trends influencing how, where and what we will eat in the coming years: #zerowaste #respectfood #noplastic #climatechange #eco. An overview of selected trends: ‘less is more’; consciousism versus consumerism; the use of VR (virtual presentations and product tests).

Agriculture and the food industry in the face of climate change

Food production versus the Earth’s climate – mechanisms of interaction. Agriculture as an economic sector particularly susceptible to climate change. Intensive agriculture and livestock farming versus natural resources. To feed humanity without destroying the planet – directions of changes and technologies adjusting food production to climate and demographic challenges. Reduction in carbon intensity of agricultural production versus its profitability.


Sustainable development of trade

Environmentalism, education and inspiration in contemporary trade. Ideology and brand values important for the customer. I buy ethically – the rationale and interpretation. Retail chains reduce their environmental footprint – the role of education. Trade under the watchful eye of conscious customers and regulators.

The shoppers’ era

Start-up business in an era of turbulent marketing development. Consumers rule: Where? How? Is it really so? Social selling in the era of social media; netnography; crowdsourcing and other trends. Why and how can young businesses benefit from the above?

The consumers of tomorrow

  • Down with the buying religion! ‘We do not want to own, we want to use’ – the generational change in consumer preferences and life priorities. What in return: lending, sharing or exchanging? The new shopping models (including services) – the scale and socio-economic impact of the phenomenon.
  • The sociological profile of the customers of the future. I do not identify – I do not buy. Homo consumens: I buy ethically, therefore I am. Responsibility and sustainable development versus purchasing decisions. Trends and costs – #nowaste #noplastic. What in return? Sociologists’ and economists’ points of view.
  • Is trade ready for the challenges of the circular economy and a reduction in consumption? The ‘consumer rebellion’: Will it gain in importance as a real force of influence on retail corporations? How are marketing strategies changing? A hunger for new concepts, formats and packaging designs. Environmentalism, technology, convenience and inspiration determine the consumers’ purchasing paths. Customer experience – the new king of retail. Regionally, without a carbon footprint, fast, and conveniently: Are all those features difficult to reconcile? The new consumers versus the specific features of individual industries (the automotive industry and consumer electronics).
  • The paths of reaching customers, and the idols of mass imagination – from Greta Thunberg to Małgorzata Rozenek. From emotions to values, or how to buy the recipient’s attention. When a single post on Instagram makes people empty the shop shelves… The role of dialogue with the customer. Phygital – a new dimension of trade. Apps: Does the whole truth about the customers lie there? Brand as a new guide for followers. Ideology versus brand values.


A network of contacts is your capital. How to build it and take advantage of it every day?


The new EU budget

And a new approach to sharing money. Who will be the payer and who will be the net beneficiary? Such issues are becoming less clear… New priorities and tasks where it is simply impossible to allocate funds to a given country. It is impossible to predict which projects will receive funding from the Horizon Europe or the European Defence Fund, for example. What does that mean for Poland and for the economies of the countries of our region, which are ‘used’ to the role of beneficiaries? What changes will it force? What kind of activity is needed?

Employee capital plans

It is time for an assessment – the assumptions versus the effects of the programme to date. Social environment of the programme. Relations between citizens and the state, as well as between employers and employees. Is it a matter of rules, calculations or trust? How to convince people to join the Employee Capital Plans (PPK)? Should there be a shift of accents? It is time for small and medium-sized enterprises – forecasts, expectations and arguments. The financial market and its institutions versus the PPKs. How will the funds from the PPKs be invested? Their potential impact on the WSE and the capital market.

VC on the hunt

What do venture capital funds invest in in Poland? Conditions for market recovery. Are there too few interesting projects? Specialisations – industries and groups of companies that individual funds are looking for. The smart version of investing? Values contributed to a business by VC.

The financing of innovations

Innovations introduced ‘in a continuous mode’ as a challenge for modern business. Permanent acceleration – technological progress and the paradigm of continuous change. The most advantageous sources of financing for technological development in a business. Why have so few entrepreneurs benefited from R&D relief? Preferential taxation of income from intellectual property rights, i.e. IP BOX in practice?

The financing of green investment projects

Investment projects that are to prevent global climate change – a powerful market. Green financing as a response to the growing risk resulting from climate change. A flood of green bonds and other elements of the revolution in the financing of pro-environmental projects. The idea of a sustainable economy in the strategies pursued by banks and institutions financing the investment projects – consequences for the economy. Sources and programmes; models and tools – the financing of investment projects in environment-friendly technologies in the EU and in Poland.

ePayments (ePłatności) in the economy

Cashless trading in search of a standard. Digital payments and electronic settlement – popular solutions for businesses. E-commerce payment systems – optimisation in progress. Customer requirements – functionality, flexibility, security and simplicity.


Neoliberalism, populism and globalisation

Is it true that traditional economic doctrines no longer befit our time and the future? Mazzucato, Yifu Lin, Stiglitz, Piketty… Are they apostles of a new faith? The economy of stratification: Anti-liberal movements worldwide – their sources, activity and arguments. Does rich mean bad? The free market: Is it guilty and thus deserves all it gets? Where does populism begin? Real effects of the proposed reforms on business and society. Defenders of neoliberalism and their reasons.

Slowdown, crisis and recession

Symptoms of economic slowdown worldwide – currency exchange rates and the industrial PMI. What does ‘slower’ actually mean? Signs of a deteriorating economic situation. Reactions of companies. Industries that are most at risk of a slowdown. The Polish economy in the face of a slowdown. How to prepare for a rainy day? The macroeconomic prospect and strategies pursued by businesses. What does the slowdown mean for the labour market? Ways in which different economies have recovered from the previous crisis.

Thirty years of the Polish socio-economic transformation

Three decades of Polish entrepreneurship, market building and reforms. What have we achieved? What have we neglected? Where are we? What use are we making of our success? What is the reason for the gap between our self-assessment and the external evaluation of Polish achievements? What are we to expect? A debate attended by politicians and/or representatives of economic local government.

National champions

Countries with no multinational corporations or having just a handful of them seek to establish a link with their global competition by creating strongly consolidated entities. An example of such an approach is China, where, for instance, the world’s largest state-owned corporations in the rail or shipbuilding industries have been established, and subsequent ones are being created in the power industry and the mining sector. Is that a good solution for medium-sized countries such as Poland? What is the significance of the type of ownership – private or public? What role should be played by champions of economies – in terms of innovation development, global expansion, co-operation links, and social development in the regions?

The Strategy for Responsible Development – assessment and the future

  • The ambitious mega-plan and its implementation. Strategic objectives of the Strategy for Responsible Development in the timeline. Implementation of the basic macroeconomic assumptions of the Strategy for Responsible Development
  • Basic detailed documents, modifications and corrections
  • The state is a trendsetter. And what about funds? What does private business have to say about it?
  • Success, failures, forecasts, and unknowns
  • ‘With the prospect until 2030’, so… What will come next?

What is the economic and social strategy for Poland?

A debate on the role of strategic planning. An overview of strategies pursued over the last decade. Planning apparatus? What kind of forecasting and planning tools do we have? Many countries, as well as international corporations, base their development on long-term strategies, with a horizon extending beyond one term of the government or management (e.g. until 2050). Such a horizon outlines, among other things, a programme of structural reforms and socio-economic development intended to meet future challenges. We only have medium-term plans, adopted by changing governments, but there is no continuity and continuation. What are the consequences of this? There is an opportunity for change.

Is Poland a welfare state? Social and economic reasons.

  • The economy, development, and prospects. Where are we now, and where do we want to be tomorrow?
  • Strategic goals of the government’s economic development – a projection of opportunities until the end of the term of office
  • The economic and social policy. Synergies and contradictions
  • The impact of the level of social promises on state budget, investment and the future socio-economic development
  • New macroeconomic indicators. The Responsible Development Index or the Human Development Index are examples of a different approach to socio-economic progress.

There is more to it than just GDP

How to measure development and what does it mean? GDP is no longer valid because it describes production, whereas today’s economy consists to a large extent in the provision and exchange of services, as well as data processing. More and more often, the economy and economic growth are perceived from a broader perspective, i.e. with the use of other/additional criteria and parameters. This, in turn, brings about consequences related to how the economy, industries and companies operate. The social aspect of economic activity is becoming its obvious component, the condition for existence in the market, and the real value, contrary to what it used to be until recently, i.e. just a CSR-branded ‘decoration’.

The silver economy

Demography inevitably determines the future development of societies and economies. How will the labour and services market change as the population ages? What about the mobility (including professional mobility) of the elderly? What about the care provided for the elderly (community centres, day centres, transport, forms of activation, housing stock, and senior homes)? Are cities preparing any solutions intended for them? What are the current opportunities and has anyone taken advantage of them? The market of solutions for senior citizens. Are we witnessing the growth of a new industry? Specialised services and products – their potential in business terms.

Entrepreneurs: Are they oppressed malcontents?

Relations between the state and entrepreneurs – an attempt to assess the recent years. Facilitation for business (the Business Constitution – a package of 100 changes for businesses). Is it a matter of trust? The reasons for Poland’s decline in the rankings of economic freedom (Doing Business). Is a friendly tax system possible at all? Administration: Is it a partner or a controller?

Young people wanted

Ageing cities, environments and professions. How to attract and keep young employees and residents? Generational priorities and aspirations. What determines the life and professional choices of young people? New hierarchies of importance. Attractive professions as well as career and education paths. Requirements concerning the work environment. The quality of life in Polish cities and metropolises versus their attractiveness to young people. Pro-family policy at the level of the state, local government, and business.

People with disabilities – active and needed

People with disabilities are a chance for the labour market in Poland, or how to combine social benefits with the needs of the economy. Disability as underestimated potential. The developing economy is increasingly experiencing problems with labour market shortages. Meanwhile, there are about 1.2 million unemployed working-age people with disabilities in Poland, and their employment rate is still very far from the EU average. With appropriate programmes and regulations as well as business preparation, 400–500 thousand people from that group can be introduced to the labour market. In order to achieve that goal, a synergy of business, administration and the non-governmental sector is needed. Obstacles to the activation of people with disabilities in the labour market and in social life. Examples of innovations improving and facilitating everyday life and work.


Models of financing healthcare services – an overview of solutions

  • The percentage of GDP allocated to healthcare: Is that a reliable indicator?
  • Allocation of financial resources in healthcare systems – selected problems
  • The budget, mandatory contribution, voluntary insurance, or maybe a financial mix?
  • Health insurance: What does ‘additional’ mean in this context?

New medical technologies – from design to the patient

  • What is innovation and what is novelty in medicine?
  • Selected technologies changing the face of modern medicine
  • Precision medicine. A paradigm shift in the approach to therapy
  • Immuno-oncology. The ‘Copernican Revolution’ in cancer treatment
  • Faces of the digital revolution in medicine – from smartphone apps to artificial intelligence
  • A medical robot – a doctor’s slave or a patient’s hero?
  • Drug and non-drug medical technologies: How do we finance them?
  • The range of guaranteed benefits versus the availability of new medical technologies
  • From idea to industry, i.e. let’s talk about the implementation and commercialisation of R&D results

Prevention now: Prevention has a future

  • The state, local governments, the healthcare system, or the citizens: Who is responsible for our health?
  • The public healthcare system in Poland and in selected countries. Standards, expectations and reality
  • Prevention of diseases and risk factors – a profitable investment
  • Health education of the society – Polish reality and proposed solutions

  • The structure of hospital treatment: What model are we aiming at?
  • The Smart Hospital concept
  • Hospital management in the era of Big Data analysis
  • A big hospital is like a small town. What does that mean?


The biotechnology market – the pace of its development, and its value. The growing importance of biotechnology in the economy. Development of Polish biotechnology; high teaching standards; and the research and implementation potential – an incentive for investors. Polish leaders in biotechnological innovations. Start-ups in biotechnology: Autonomy or co-operation with giants? The importance of intellectual property protection – for business security and business valuation.


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